August 2: Full Moon
The Moon will be directly opposite the Earth from the Sun and will be fully illuminated as seen from Earth.
August 5& 6: Curiosity Rover at Mars
NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is scheduled to land on the red planet between August and August 06, 2012. Officially named Curiosity, it is an autonomous rover similar to the Spirit and
Opportunity rovers that previously visited Mars. This much larger rover will carry many more instruments and experiments than its previous cousins. Curiosity’s high definition color cameras will photograph the Martian surface while a host of instruments will sample the soil and air and search for organic compounds.
August 12, 13: Perseids Meteor Shower
The Perseids is one of the best meteor showers to observe, producing up to 60 meteors per hour at their peak. The shower's peak usually occurs on August 13 & 14, but you may be able to see some meteors any time from July 23 - August 22. The radiant point for this shower will be in the constellation Perseus. The near last quarter moon will be hanging around for the show, but shouldn’t be too much of a problem for a shower with up to 60 meteors per hour. Find a location far from city lights and look to the northeast after midnight.
August 17: New Moon
The Moon will be directly between the Earth and the Sun and will not be visible from Earth. This phase occurs at 15:54 UTC.
Neptune at Opposition
The blue planet will be at its closest approach to Earth and its face will be fully illuminated by the Sun. This is the best time to view
Neptune. Due to its distance, it will only appear as a tiny blue dot in all but the most powerful telescopes.
August 31: Full Moon
The Moon will be directly opposite the Earth from the Sun and will be fully illuminated as seen from Earth. Since this is the second full moon in the same month, it is known as a blue moon. This rare calendar event only happens once every few years, giving rise to the term, “once in a blue moon.”