Bhāskara (also known as Bhāskara II and Bhāskarāchārya ("Bhāskara the teacher"), (1114–1185), was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He was born near Vijjadavida (Bijāpur in modern Karnataka). Bhāskara is said to have been the head of an astronomical observatory at Ujjain, the leading mathematical center of ancient India. He lived in the Sahyadri region.
Bhāskara and his works represent a significant contribution to mathematical and astronomical knowledge in the 12th century. He has been called the greatest mathematician of medieval India.His main work Siddhānta Shiromani, (Sanskrit for "Crown of treatises,") is divided into four parts called Lilāvati, Bijaganita, Grahaganita and Golādhyāya. These four sections deal with arithmetic, algebra, mathematics of the planets, and spheres respectively. He also wrote another treatise named Karan Kautoohal.
Bhāskara's work on calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by half a millennium. He is particularly known in the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations. While Newton and Leibniz have been credited with differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bhāskara was a pioneer in some of the principles of differential calculus. He was perhaps the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus.
Bhaskaracharya was born into a family belonging to the Deshastha Brahmin community. History records his great-great-great-grandfather holding a hereditary post as a court scholar, as did his son and other descendants. His father Mahesvara was as an astrologer, who taught him mathematics, which he later passed on to his son Loksamudra. Loksamudra's son helped to set up a school in 1207 for the study of Bhāskara's writings.
His Work :
Using an astronomical model developed by Brahmagupta in the 7th century, Bhaskara accurately defined many astronomical quantities, including, for example, the length of the sidereal year, the time that is required for the Earth to orbit the Sun, as 365.2588 days which is same as in Suryasiddhanta. The modern accepted measurement is 365.2563 days, a difference of just 3.5 minutes.
His mathematical astronomy text Siddhanta Shiromani is written in two parts: the first part on mathematical astronomy and the second part on the sphere.
The twelve chapters of the first part cover topics such as:
- Mean longitudes of the planets.
- True longitudes of the planets.
- The three problems of diurnal rotation.
- Lunar eclipses.
- Solar eclipses.
- Latitudes of the planets.
- Sunrise equation
- The Moon's crescent.
- Conjunctions of the planets with each other.
- Conjunctions of the planets with the fixed stars.
- The patas of the Sun and Moon.
The second part contains thirteen chapters on the sphere. It covers topics such as:
- Praise of study of the sphere.
- Nature of the sphere.
- Cosmography and geography.
- Planetary mean motion.
- Eccentric epicyclic model of the planets.
- The armillary sphere.
- Spherical trigonometry.
- Ellipse calculations.
- First visibilities of the planets.
- Calculating the lunar crescent.
- Astronomical instruments.
- The seasons.
- Problems of astronomical calculations.
His great contribution was also in
Mathematics, Arithmetic, Algebra, Trigonometry, Calculus, Engineering.